DNA–Deoxyribonucleic Acid


DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria (where it is called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA).

The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people. DNA bases pair up with each other, A with T and C with G, to form units called base pairs. Each base is also attached to a sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule.

DNA profiling or testing is considered the best method to identify a person.DNA is a hereditary material unique to each individual. An individual gets 50% of one’s DNA from each of one’s parents. An individual’s DNA can be collected from body fluids, hair or even from a wine glass or spoon he or she just used.

Governments of different countries used DNA database to detect criminals.

The government of India plans to introduce a bill in parliament that aims to create a pool of DNA profiles of criminals. This bill will give the centre powers to collect DNA samples of everybody involved in all civil and criminal cases, including suspects.