Types of Corporate Restructuring

Corporate Restructuring means any change in the business capacity or portfolio that is carried out by inorganic route or any change in the capital structure of a company that is not in the ordinary course of its business or any change in the ownership of a company or control over its management or a combination of any two or all of the above.

 Types of Corporate Restructuring

  • Mergers / Amalgamation
  • Acquisition and Takeover
  • Divestiture
  • Demerger (spin off / split up / split off)
  • Reduction of Capital
  • Joint Ventures
  • Buy back of Securities

Merger / Amalgamation: A merger is a combination of two or more businesses into one business. Laws in India use the term ‘amalgamation’ for merger. Amalgamation is the merger of one or more companies with another or the merger of two or more companies to form a new company, in such a way that all assets and liabilities of the amalgamating companies become assets and liabilities of the amalgamated company.

  • Merger through Absorption:- An absorption is a combination of two or more companies into an ‘existing company’. All companies except one lose their identity in such a merger. For example, absorption of Tata Fertilisers Ltd (TFL) by Tata Chemicals Ltd. (TCL).
  • Merger through Consolidation:- A consolidation is a combination of two or more companies into a ‘new company’. In this form of merger, all companies are legally dissolved and a new entity is created. Here, the acquired company transfers its assets, liabilities and shares to the acquiring company for cash or exchange of shares. For example, merger of Hindustan Computers Ltd, Hindustan Instruments Ltd, Indian Software Company Ltd and Indian Reprographics Ltd into an entirely new company called HCL Ltd.

Acquisitions and Takeovers: An acquisition may be defined as an act of acquiring effective control by one company over assets or management of another company without any combination of companies. Thus, in an acquisition two or more companies may remain independent, separate legal entities, but there may be a change in control of the companies. When an acquisition is ‘forced’ or ‘unwilling’, it is called a takeover.

Divestiture: Divestiture means an out sale of all or substantially all the assets of the company or any of its business undertakings / divisions, usually for cash (or for a combination of cash and debt) and not against equity shares. In short, divestiture means sale of assets, but not in a piecemeal manner. Divestiture is normally used to mobilize resources for core business or businesses of the company by realizing value of non-core business assets.

Demerger:Demerger is a form of corporate restructuring in which an entity’s business operations are segregated into one or more components.

Demerger can take three forms:

  • Spin-off
  • Split-up
  • Split-off

Reduction of Capital: Reduction of Capital is a  process by which a company is allowed to extinguish or reduce liability on any of its shares in respect of share capital not paid up, or is allowed to cancel any paid-up share capital which is post or is allowed to pay-off any paid –up capital which is in excess of its requirements.

Joint Venture: Joint Venture is an arrangement in which two or more companies (called joint venture partners) contribute to the equity capital of a new company (called joint venture) in pre-decided proportion. For e.g. Maruti Suzuki

Buy back of Securities: When a company is holding excess cash, which it does not require in the medium term (say three to five years); it is prudent for the company to return this excess cash to its shareholders. Buy-back of securities is one of the methods used to return the excess cash to its shareholders.